Board Slotting Tutorial

August 24, 2011

Safe and successful operation of the Peachey Board Slotting Machine requires a thorough understanding of its components and capabilities. This tutorial is an expansion of a previous blog post documenting the author’s first exposure to board slotting, and attempts to provide a comprehensive description of the setup and operation of the machine. If topics are unclear or absent, please leave a comment or contact the author here. Discussion will begin with instructions for changing the blade, then move to setting the cutting angle and depth, and finish with aspects of the speed of operation. After all of the machine setup is covered, the tutorial will finish with a detailed description of the slotting process. A quick reference guide of all the steps is included at the end of the post for occasional users that need a refresher. You can also reach the quick reference by clicking here.

Part I: Machine Setup

1. Changing the Blade

The literature on board slotting discusses several different approaches to hinge and spine lining construction (Andres, 2008; Peachey, 2006; Zimmern, 2000). Different methods of board attachment can vary the thickness of the hinge material inserted into the board, requiring a matching slot. The Peachey Board Slotting Machine comes with four different blades, ranging in thickness from 0.010” to 0.050”, so that a properly sized slot may be created for the material used. A dial caliper is a useful tool for determining the blade required for a certain thickness of hinge material.

Changing the blade is a simple procedure; however, all safety protocols should be observed when attempting to do so. Ensure that the machine is powered off and unplugged before removing the clear safety guard from the right side of the saw column.

The thumb nuts holding the safety shield can be removed by hand. Grasp the drive wheel at the top of the motor to hold the blade in place while carefully loosening the bolt underneath the blade using the included hex wrench. After removing the hex bolt and saw blade holder, the blade will come free. Exchange blades for one of the desired thickness that is clean and sharp. Ensure that it is in the proper orientation for cutting (illustrated below) when mounting it on the machine.

The new blade should rest flush against the mount. Replace the saw blade holder (flat side down) and hex bolt. Hold the drive wheel to fully tighten the blade with the hex wrench before replacing the safety shield.

2. Adjusting the Carriage Angle

In order for the hinge of the slotted board to function properly, the cut must start just below the top of the board and go to its center.

The depth of the cut may be altered by adjusting the pitch and distance of the carriage relative to the blade. The carriage pitch can range from 0-20 degrees, but the recommended slotting angle for most boards is between 10 and 15 degrees. Thinner boards require a lower angle.

The angle of the platen is adjusted by loosening the black quick-release handle at the left side of the carriage. Angle markings have been engraved into the carriage base to allow for quick and easy setup.

3. Controlling the Depth of Cut

The depth of the saw cut is adjusted by moving the carriage toward the blade using a wheel located at the back of the machine, underneath the carriage.

This wheel is calibrated in 0.001” divisions and one full revolution moves the carriage 0.050”. For most boards, a cutting distance of about 3/16” will suffice. Three full revolutions of the wheel will achieve the recommended cutting depth (0.150” or ~3/16”). This measurement may need to be altered for very thick or thin boards.

4. Setting the Blade Height

The slot begins directly beneath the board covering material, and the wheel at the top of the saw column adjusts the blade height. Like the carriage adjustment, this wheel is calibrated in 0.001” increments, with one full turn raising or lowering the blade by 0.050”. The brass handle further down the column locks the blade position in place. To unlock the height adjustment, the brass handle must be moved to the left.

5. Speed of Operation 

The Peachey Board Slotting Machine features independent saw and carriage speed controls. The saw is equipped with a 0.50 horsepower motor with variable speeds ranging from 70-2800 rpm. The on/off switch and speed control for the saw motor are located at the front of the saw-arm assembly, facing the operator (see above).

The saw speed knob should be set to a 3-4 o’clock position during operation. Cutting at a higher saw speed poses a danger of overheating and burning the board.

A separate controller box operates the carriage direction and variable speed. The toggle switch activates the carriage movement and control direction, while the knob alters the speed. A carriage speed of 2.5 to 3 is recommended to keep the board from overheating.

(NOTE: It is very important to visualize the movement of the carriage before setting it in motion. As the carriage is moving instead of the saw, it is very easy to become confused and send the board slotting in the wrong direction!).

Part II: Description of Operation

Now that the machine is set up and controls have been reviewed, the machine is ready for use. The book board is placed with the outside of the board face-up in the carriage and centered under the clamping bar. Ensure that the spine edge of the board is flush with the edge of the carriage. If the board covering material may be damaged by the tension bar, a scrap piece of binder board cut to the same dimensions as the book board may be placed between the tension bar and board. Tighten the bolts on the tension bar simultaneously and evenly in order to achieve uniform tension on the board, much like tightening a lying press. Uneven tension may adversely affect the saw cut, damaging the book board.

The height of the blade is set to just under the board covering material (0.040″ – 0.080″ below the top of the board). It is important to check the alignment of the blade at both ends of the board before slotting. To do this, move the carriage so that the blade is at the tail end of the book board. Bring the carriage toward the blade until the saw teeth are just against the board edge. Flip the brass lever at the front of the saw column to the left, and move the blade to the correct height.

Peachey (2006) describes three methods for aligning the blade to just under the covering material (p. 31). If the placement of the blade cannot be accomplished by eye, a scalpel may be used as a gauge. Simply press the tip of a scalpel blade into the spine surface of the board at the intended position of the slot and raise the blade until it rests against the flat of the scalpel.

One may also calculate the appropriate blade height. Using a caliper, measure the thickness of the board and set the blade height through the divisions on the adjustment wheel (marked in 0.001” intervals).

When the blade height is properly set at the tail of the board, lock the blade position by flipping the brass lever to the right. Back the carriage away from the blade, then move the carriage to the right so that the head of the board is at the blade. Once again, adjust the carriage depth so that the teeth of the blade are just against the board edge and examine the alignment. If the blade position is the same at each end of the board, the slot may be cut. Some boards may be warped or distorted so that the same blade height will not slot evenly across. If this is the case, adjust the blade height to compensate and recheck the alignment.

The slot is always cut from the head of the board to the tail, or with the carriage direction opposite that of the saw. Not only does this produce a straighter cut, but most of the board debris is expelled by the motion of the saw (Peachey, 2006, p. 30).

One will start and stop the cutting of the blade in different locations on the board, depending upon the method of board attachment. For example, Peachey (2006) describes a method of “biscuit slotting” for tight backs in which the board is only slotted at the head and tail spine panels (p. 30). Andres (2008) describes a repair structure in which the boards are slotted all the way through the turn-in material (p. 24). It is also often easier to slot  through the length of the board if the initial cut was in the wrong position, the boards have extreme backcornering, or the covering material is abraded.  Most instances, however, will require a slot that begins just inside the head edge of the board and continues along the length to just inside the tail edge (illustrated below).

With the carriage position set at the head of the board, start the blade motor and check the motor speed. At this time, the vacuum is started. Adjust the carriage depth until the blade begins to make contact with the board edge, then set the cutting depth by turning the wheel three full revolutions. Flip the carriage control toggle to the left and turn the carriage speed up to 2.5.

Closely monitor the progress of the slotting operation. If burning occurs, the blade or carriage speed should be reduced. If burning persists, the blade may need to be cleaned or sharpened. When the blade gets close to the tail edge of the board, slow the carriage motion until it reaches the appropriate position. Stop the carriage motion by turning the knob down to zero and flipping the toggle to the center. Back the carriage away from the blade and turn off the saw motor. Finally, switch off the vacuum and loosen the tension bar. Remove the book board from the platen and gently tap the spine edge of the board against a hard surface to clear any sawdust. A micro spatula may also be used to clear the slot.

Part III: Quick Reference Guide

  1. Determine the appropriate blade thickness and change the blade (if required).
  2. Set the carriage angle.
  3. Place the board in the carriage.
  4. Move the carriage to the tail of the book and adjust the blade height.
  5. Move the carriage to head of the board and check the blade height.
  6. Start the saw blade with the speed dial set to 3 or 4 o’clock.
  7. Turn on the vacuum.
  8. Move the carriage up to the blade, then turn the wheel three revolutions to achieve the right depth.
  9. Flip the carriage toggle switch to the left and begin the carriage motion (at a speed of 2.5 or 3).
  10. When the board has reached the desired endpoint, stop the carriage.
  11. Back the carriage off of the blade.
  12. Turn off the saw motor.
  13. Turn off the vaccum.
  14. Remove the board from the machine and gently tap the spine edge to knock out any debris.


Andres, A. M. (2008). A new variation on board slotting: Case binding meets in-boards binding. The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist, 4(2), 24-26.

Peachey, J. S. (2006). New possibilities for board slotting. The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist, 2(2), 28-32.

Zimmern, F. (2000). Board slotting: A machine-supported book conservation method. The Book and Paper Group Annual, 19, 19-25.

I’ve become aware of a very thin 100% cotton available in 19 colors.  It is made by Swiss company  Creation Baumann, called Balloon Plus 415, and distributed worldwide.  According to Testfabrics, the US distributor,  this line is dyed with reactive dyes.  I’ve experimented a bit with it, and like most airplane cottons it should be washed before use. It is 73 g/m(2) and is an astounding .oo5 inch thick– the airplane cotton I have averages .008 inch.  Creation Baumann also makes a 100% linen called Loris 173, which is thicker at 187 g/m(2) and around .010 inch.  It is made in 12 colors.  Both can be manufactured to custom colors, if you happen to need 260 yards.

The only downside are the available colors, which are more oriented for designers rather than books, but the medium brown seems quite useful.  I can imagine these fabrics being used on their own, or as a base for additional toning, which I haven’t tried yet.  They also seem useful for other types of board attachment, rebacking, etc. when a thin, strong, natural fiber is desired.

Puck lights are small battery powered LED lights, usually with five LED’s, usually used for quick installation in closets, under kitchen counters, etc.  I assume the name comes from the fact that they look a bit like a hockey puck.  They are a very useful lighting option for board slotting machines- Mindy Dubansky from the Met, investigated lighting for her slotting machine, and a lighting expert suggested this solution.  It is a bit counterintuitive, lighting from below to see the board edge on the top of the blade, but in practice it works great.


September 19, 2010

I have recently dyed more aerocotton for slotting using Procion MX reactive dye, the previous stocks from my initial experimentation with dye recipes having now run low.  The pipette filler I mentioned in the original dye post has been of great benefit for measuring out the very small and precise quantities of stock solution required for accuracy in the dye recipes.  There are many on the market with huge variation in sophistication and price, but the simple one I’ve been using seems fine.  The wheel mechanism allows very accurate measurement and it is easy and quick to empty.  Although we ordered our filler from Fisher Scientific you can see an image at the following link:

I’ve also experimented with an easier way to dissolve the Glaubers salt (sodium sulfate) in the dye bath.  As it is anhydrous it has a tendency to clump together when added too rapidly to the solution and the resulting rock like particles are very difficult to dissolve.  It is essential to have the salt fully dissolved to prevent the resulting dyed fabric from being uneven, or unlevel, in colour.  Previously I have gradually scattered the salt over the surface in small quantities, vigorously agitating the bath throughout.  This time I tried to pre-dissolve the  salt in a moderate amount of cold water from the total quantity of water used in the dyeing process.  Using water from the overall quantity required is important as the success of the dyeing is regulated by the amount of water to weight of textile ratio and adding additional water would alter the end colour.  However, it was not possible to dissolve the quantity of salt necessary without using a larger quantity of water than the 50mls I took out of the dye bath, and any more would prevent the first stage of the dye process from effectively taking place, that is the wetting out of the textile in the dissolved dye.  Heating the solution is probably the answer – I’ll try this and let you know if this has any effect, good or bad!


Cast Composite Films

May 31, 2010

At the 2010 LCCDG, Grace Owen and Sarah Reidell, conservators at New York Public Library Goldsmith Conservation Lab, presented some preliminary results using cast composite films.  They are cast with acrylic gel mediums and paints on a silicone mold which replicates the grain of various leathers.  Surface casting techniques were borrowed from objects and painting conservation, and can be attached to a wide variety of substrates.

Grace showed me a couple of the samples she had prepared, and it seems to be a technique that could show great promise for board slotting.  Hopefully, they will present a paper on the subject when their experiments are completed. This seems to be a very exciting prospective treatment– the inherent strength of board slotting combined with visual integration of cast acrylics.  Stay tuned.


Visible Board Slotting

January 5, 2010

Recently, as I was installing a board slotting machine, several of us started talking about the possibility of slotting other materials.  The blades that the machine uses were originally designed to cut metal, and I’ve successfully slotted wood for an artist book edition. Plexiglas, aka. Perspex, was a natural choice, given its use in mounting applications The ability to insert an flexible hinge into a piece of it seemed to be potentially useful for something, although I’m not sure exactly what.  Normal plexiglas slotted fairly well, with a fairly even matt appearance in the actual slot, but cast plexiglas, which is optically slightly clearer, didn’t slot as evenly, and tended to clog in the slot itself.  Reversing the direction of the blade, in order to clear the slot, exasperated the problem even more.

I haven’t tried the new Optium (TM) from Tru Vue, which according to the manufacturer, has less than 1% reflection at a 90 degree viewing angle, dissipates 2000 times more static charge than normal acrylic, passes a 600 dry cloth rub test (at 2.5 pounds) for abrasion resistance, 99.6% UV filtering below 380 nm and 98% light transmission.  At least they send out an impressive looking sample set!

Since the exact path of the blade is visible, a slotted piece of plexi is a useful teaching tool when beginning to learn board slotting.  It helps the uninitiated visualize where to begin the slot relative to the height of the board.  The dust tended to clump together, so a thin, rigid piece of paper was used to clear the slot.

If nothing else, this visible slot is a very clear example of the precision and angle that is usually hidden.


Daubeny Project: Light Relief

November 19, 2009

The last few weeks has seen me concentrating on the big questions of light and consolidation.

The Daubeny Library both benefits and suffers from being in its original laboratory setting. The context is wonderful and really adds to the uniqueness of the collection, but the light exposure it suffers from several 3 metre+ high windows which face the book presses is less great. I have been logging light levels over a number of months, as well as setting up a long term light test using samples of the dyed textile used for slotting. Light levels have become somewhat of an obsession due to the work I did on the reactive dyes, as traditionally, and somewhat unfairly, they have always had a reputation of being less light fast than direct dyes. At Daubeny, the UV light levels are encouraging but the visible light levels are slightly too high. It is a difficult space to regulate in light terms as it is used both as a library and a lecture room. Consequently I have been encouraging users to lower the blinds in the room after use, but this has had a variable degree of success. However, any lowering of light levels is a big improvement on the relatively uncontrolled exposure the collection has experienced up until the recent refurbishment of the laboratory.

Consolidation in progress. Image reproduced with the kind permission of the President and Fellows of Magdalen College, Oxford.

The chemically degraded nature of the majority of the leather covering the Daubeny books has also been a challenge. Early tests with the traditional consolidant mixture of klucel g in IMS showed considerable and unacceptable darkening of the leather, and a coarsening of the leather surface. Having done some research into the water content of common solvents, I settled on isopropanol as the solvent of choice. Unlike IMS, with a water content of up to 1%, isopropanol has a water content of less than 1%, and as such seemed a better bet not to darken the leather. I made a 2% solution in isopropanol by gradually adding the solvent to the klucel g, stirring all the time, and leaving it to fully dissolve overnight. This resulted in a very smooth, gelatinous liquid which when applied with a brush caused neither darkening nor streaks across the leather surface.

Victoria (Stevens)

The experiments on the dyeing of spine materials for the Daubeny slotting programme has taken up my time and almost all my thought since my last post on this project.  This is due to it being uncharted waters for me and the criteria being fairly demanding.  I needed a process that was simple and could be achieved in a normal studio setting with the equipment available, and which provided a strong depth of shade using a dye recipe that was easy to accurately replicate.  As the Daubeny books are stored on open shelving good light fastness was also important.  Finally, I did not want a dye which altered the texture or handling properties of the aerocotton chosen for the new spine material.

This search for the holy grail of toning and dyestuffs was quickly narrowed down to 2 dye systems: direct and reactive dyes.  Direct dyes, specifically the Ciba-Geigy direct dye Solophenyl, are used extensively by textile conservators.  They have excellent reproducibility and light fastness but their relatively low wet fastness is an issue.  They also require heat and pH monitoring during the dye cycle leading to a reasonably elaborate procedure.

Reactive dyes, such as Procion MX and Cibaron, or its new incarnation Novacron, are highly solvent resistant due to the strong covalent bond they form between the dye and the fibre.  The dye cycle does not necessarily require heat as the dye is extremely reactive under normal ambient conditions.  This category of dyes have fair to very good light fastness, with the reds being the poorest.  However, this is so with all dyes types.  On the negative side, the highly reactive nature of the dyes can make them difficult to reproduce accurately and can cause unevenness in colour, or unlevellness, across the textile.

Having worked with collections stored in historic buildings I was all too aware of the water based events that can occur involving library and archive materials.  Also, having attended a course on dyeing, arranged by the Textile Group of Icon at the much mourned Textile Conservation Centre (TCC), and witnessed first hand the relatively complicated procedure involved in using direct dyes, I knew reactive dyes were the way forward.

My early results with Procion MX dyes have been very encouraging.  I have benefited from the advice and expertise of Stuart Smethurst at Kemtex, a UK distributor of these dyes, my colleagues at the Oxford Conservation Consortium and the Bodleian, and the mass of literature available on the subject.  I have listed supplier’s information and a brief sample of essential reading for anyone embarking on a reactive dyeing programme below.  These sources also detail recommended dye colours and the dye cycle very clearly, so I will not repeat it here.  However, the problems I had with levellness and reproduction of an exact shade may be avoided by taking care in the following areas:

1. Wetting out: it is important that the fabric is thoroughly wetted before making contact with the dye bath to ensure even uptake into the fibre.

2. The thorough mixing of the salt in the dye solution is also crucial.  The sodium sulphate used is very reluctant to dissolve, and the course information from the TCC recommends making a strong solution of the salt and adding that the dye bath, rather than trying to dissolve it in the bath itself.

3. Agitation: you can not rock the dye bath to much!

4. Rinsing and drying: the smallest amount of residual dye can cause unlevellness, so thorough rinsing in hot water to include a brisk boil wash for around 5 minutes is also important to achieve even dyeing.

With regard to light fastness, the 3 colours I am using have fairly good to very good light fastness.  I have set up light tests on my samples and will report in due course.  Finally, with regards to the inconsistencies in colour reproduction, I am looking into more accurate methods of measuring.  The quantities of dye in solution are so small that even minor discrepancies may cause differences in colour when a recipe is repeated.  A more accurate pipette has been ordered so hopefully this will result in more accurate colour reproduction from the ratios of the stock colours than I have so far been able to produce.  I’ll let you know how I get on.

Toning cloth for boardslotting using Procion MX dyes. Reproduced with the kind permission of the President and Fellows of Magdalen College, Oxford.

Sources of information and suppliers:

Ruth Norton, Dyeing Cellulose-fibre Paper with Fibre Reactive Dyes, The Paper Conservator, Vol 26 2002

Edward Simpson, Dyeing Aerolinen and Aerocotton with Reactive Dyes, Paper Conservation News 71, September 1994

Dyeing Techniques Manual, Textile Conservation Centre, 2008

Timar-Balazsy and Eastrop, Chemical Principles of Textile Conservation, Butterworth Heinemann, 1998

Lerber, Karin von, Cibaron F (reactive dyes) versus Solophenyl (direct dye) for Support Fabrics in Textile Conservation, Newsletter, ICOM Committee for Conservation, 1/96, 3-5

Stuart Smethurst, Kemtex Educational Supplies, Chorley Business and Technology Centre, Euxton Lane Chorley, Lancs, UK, PR7  6TE., 01257 230220.  Suppliers of dyes and auxiliary chemicals.

Victoria Stevens

Sometimes, a board to be slotted is slightly longer than the maximum allowed by the carriage.  It is still possible to slot these, and the example below illustrates the temporary modifications to the machine and outlines the technique.  In this case, board slotting was used on a small edition of 12 books.  The large (46 x 31 cm) medium density fiberboard covers were covered with burl veneer, and the artist, Accra Shepp, and I decided that slotting would be an ideal method of firmly attaching the laminated paper/ linen spine to to heavy boards, while keeping their clean, unobstructed visual appeal.  More information about the book including images is available at my blog.


First the clamping bar is removed and a four cm. thick plywood spacer is added so that the boards will clear the edge of the carriage.  In this case, 2 clamps proved adequate to keep the MDF from shifting during the slotting process.  For typical binders board, it may be necessary to clamp it between plywood during the slotting.



As the slotting progress, the clamps are moved so they do not hit the blade guards.  As long as only one clamp was moved at a time, the position of the board did not shift.  The MDF was very easy to slot.



Once the left side of the carriage cleared the motor, the board was clamped on the on left side.  It is necessary to turn the machine on and off a number of times to adjust the clamps– it would be dangerous to leave the blade spinning when adjusting the clamps.



When the machine reached the end of the available space, the carriage was brought back to the center of the machine.  If you look at the position of the board relative to the plywood spacers you will notice that the board has been shifted about 5 cm to the left, then reclamped.    In this case, it was necessary to release both clamps, and slide the board to the left so that the right side of it could be slotted.  Depending on how exactly the board is repositioned at the front of the machine, it may be necessary to readjust the height of the blade to reenter the exact position of the previous cut.



Once again, the clamps are moved and pictured here the board is finished being completely slotted.  If a number of oversize boards were to be slotted, it might be prudent to glue the stacked plywood together, so that they don’t shift, or even attach them to the base in the pre threaded 1/4″/ 20 tpi holes for the original clamping bar.  The book board itself could be clamped in a simple press (two pieces of plywood with 4 carriage bolts at the corners) to eliminate some of the shifting of the various components that I encountered.  This would make the repositioning of the board much easier and more accurate.


We have been experiencing problems with the syringe tips for applying adhesive into the slot.  Standard metal blunt tipped syringe needles are prone to clogging and frequently the adhesive is difficult to apply in an even and controlled way.  They can also be difficult to clean.

An alternative is the clear tapered syringe tips available from Preservation Equipment Limited, UK.  These tips are made from flexible translucent plastic with a diameter of 0.041mm.  This will allow a more even flow of adhesive, whilst the flexibility of the tip enables smoother and more accurate application.  The flexibility and translucency of the tips also makes cleaning easier and more effective.  They are sold in packs of 10, catalogue reference is 870-1055  from  Any feedback would be welcome.

Victoria Stevens